The Four Stages of Wound Healing
Use of ozone for wound healing is a two-phase process:
Phase 1 – Kill the bacteria and viruses in the wound – use ozone gas – 60 to 80 gamma, full ozonated water or strong ozonated oils – Three times per day for first two days
Phase 2 – Promote healing through increased oxygenation – ozone gas – 20 gamma or milder ozone oil – Three times per day for two weeks
See Bocci on Ozonated Oils study
There are also four stages of wound healing:
- Damaged blood vessels constrict, platelet plugs form and blood coagulates.
- Platelets and damaged cells initiate reactions ultimately resulting in fibrin threads and clot formation.
2) Inflammation Phase
- Swelling and warmth often associated with pain.
- The inflammatory response causes the blood vessels to become leaky releasing plasma and neutrophils into the surrounding tissue.This cleans up debris and fights infection.
- The area exhibits redness and swelling accompanied by heat and pain.
- Macrophages are able to phagocytize bacteria and provide a second line of defense. They also direct the next phase of healing.
3) Proliferative Phase (Proliferation, Granulation and Contraction)
- The granulation stage starts four days after wounding and can last up to three weeks in acute wounds.
- Fibroblasts secrete the collagen framework upon which further dermal regeneration occurs.
- Pericytes regenerate the outer layers of capillaries and the endothelial cells which produce the lining.
- Specialized fibroblasts are responsible for wound contraction. Keratinocytes are responsible for epithelialization.
4) Remodeling or Maturation Phase
- The healing process involves remodeling the dermal tissues to produce greater tensile strength by the fibroblasts.
- Remodeling can take up to two years after wounding.